Evidence & Resource Library Definitions

Each resource in the Evidence and Resource Library is categorized based on the following characteristics:

Resource Type

These filters identify the type of resource. The categories are mutually exclusive.

  • Peer Reviewed Research: Research articles published in peer-reviewed journals.
  • Issue Briefs & Reports: Reports, issue briefs, and other documents not published in peer-reviewed journals.
  • Commentaries & Blogs: Opinion pieces published in peer-reviewed journals or through other forums.
  • Tools & Toolkits: Tools and toolkits related to social interventions, including screening tools.
  • Webinars Slides & Recordings: Slides and recordings from webinars, podcasts, and other presentations.

Study Design

These filters identify the design of the study. This pertains mainly to research studies or reports. The categories are mutually exclusive.

  • Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): Intervention studies in which participants are randomly allocated into intervention and comparison groups.
  • Pre-post with Comparison Group: Intervention studies in which intervention participants are compared to a comparison group, but assignment to the intervention and comparison group is not random.
  • Pre-post without Comparison Group: Intervention studies in which there is no comparison group
  • Review: Syntheses of existing research to summarize the current state of knowledge. Includes both peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed reviews.
  • Other Study Designs: Includes all other studies.

Social Determinants of Health

These filters identify the resources SDH focus, if there is one. The categories are not mutually exclusive.

  • Built Environment
  • Childcare
  • Criminal Justice
  • Economic Security
  • Education/Literacy
  • Employment
  • Food/Hunger
  • Health Care Access
  • Housing Quality
  • Housing Stability
  • Immigration
  • Legal Services
  • Public Benefits
  • Social Support/Social Isolation
  • Transportation
  • Utilities
  • Violence/Safety
  • Not Specified: This filter identifies resources that relate to SDH but do not specify any specific domain.


These filters identify the resource’s population focus. The categories are not mutually exclusive.

  • Children and Youth
  • Complex Patients: Includes high risk, high utilizing, chronically ill patients with comorbidities.
  • Elderly
  • Health Care Professionals
  • Homeless
  • Immigrants
  • Medicaid-insured
  • Medicare insured
  • Pregnant/New Mothers
  • Veterans


These filters identify the types of outcomes or data included in the study. This pertains mainly to research studies or reports. The categories are not mutually exclusive.

  • Process: Measures of the process of implementing a social intervention, including uptake of screening among providers, number of patients screened, number of referrals, referral outcomes, use of social services, etc.
  • Social Needs/SDH: Outcomes related to social risks, social needs and social determinants of health (e.g., housing & food insecurity, education, economic stability).
  • Health & Health Behaviors: Includes both physical and mental health outcomes as well as behaviors known to impact health (e.g. smoking, physical activity).
  • Patient experience of care: Outcomes related to how patients experience health care and health care interventions (e.g. measures of patient satisfaction).
  • Provider experience of care: Outcomes related to health care professionals’ job experiences (e.g. measures of burnout and provider satisfaction).
  • Utilization: Health care utilization outcomes (e.g. ED visits, hospital readmissions, primary care visits).
  • Cost: Health care cost and return on investment outcomes.

Screening Resources

This identifies resources that include information on social risk screening, including screening tools and toolkits and studies of screening tools and practices.

  • Yes
  • No

SIREN Produced Resources

This identifies resources created by SIREN.

  • Siren webinars
  • Screening tools comparison table
  • Compendium of medical terminology codes for social risk factors
  • Siren issue briefs/reports