Challenges and successes with food resource referrals for food-insecure patients with diabetes

Perm J

Introduction: Clinics increasingly screen patients for food insecurity, but little is known about the efficacy of referring food-insecure patients to community-based food resources.

Objective: To evaluate the implementation of a tailored community food resource referral program in a safety-net diabetes clinic.

Methods: We conducted semistructured phone interviews with food-insecure patients participating in a screening and referral program in a diabetes clinic affiliated with a safety-net hospital. In this qualitative study, we describe barriers to and facilitators of successful food resource referrals from the patient’s perspective.

Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high (60%). Provision of written and verbal information alone about community food resources resulted in low linkage rates (0%-4%), even with individually tailored referrals. Misperceptions about eligibility, fears around government program registration, inaccessibility, lack of information retention, competing priorities, an inability to cook, stigma, and a perceived sense of stability with existing food support were major barriers to use. Personnel-guided, in-clinic enrollment to a food resource facilitated a higher connection rate (31%).

Discussion: Results of this study suggest that screening for food insecurity followed by a list of food resources for those screening positive may not adequately address patient barriers to using community-based food resources. For food insecurity screening programs in the clinical setting to be effective, systems must not only distribute food resource information but also assist patients in enrollment processes.

Marpadga S, Fernandez A, Leung J, Tang A, Seligman H, Murphy EJ. Challenges and successes with food resource referrals for food-insecure patients with diabetes. Perm J 2019;23:18-097. PMID: 30939269. DOI:

Publication Year: 
Resource Type: 
Peer Reviewed Research
Study Design: 
Other Study Design
Social Determinant of Health: 
Screening Research: