Nonmedical interventions for type 2 diabetes: evidence, actionable strategies, and policy opportunities
This systematic review identified studies of nonmedical interventions designed to reduce risk for and improve clinical outcomes for type 2 diabetes. Specifically, this review sought to identify interventions that target structural racism and social determinants of health. To be included, studies were published in English; published between database initiation and January 2022; conducted in the United States; measured an intervention effect using a clinical trial, quasi-experimental, or pre-post design; included a population of adults at risk for or with type 2 diabetes; and targeted hemoglobin A1c levels, blood pressure, lipids, self-care, or quality of life as outcomes. The findings of our review indicate that interventions with targeted, multicomponent designs that combine both medical and nonmedical approaches can reduce risk for and improve clinical outcomes for type 2 diabetes. HbA1c levels improved significantly with the use of food supplementation with referral and diabetes support; the use of financial incentives with education and skills training; the use of housing relocation with counseling support; and the integration of nonmedical interventions into medical care using the electronic medical record. Our findings demonstrate that the literature on nonmedical interventions designed to address relevant social factors and target structural racism is limited. The article offers actionable strategies and identifies policy opportunities for targeting structural inequalities and decreasing social risk among adults with type 2 diabetes.
Egede LE, Walker RJ, Linde S, Campbell JA, et al. Nonmedical interventions for type 2 diabetes: evidence, actionable strategies, and policy opportunities. Health Aff (Millwood). 2022 Jul;41(7):963-970. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2022.00236. Epub 2022 Jun 27. PMID: 35759702.